CD30 expression in malignancy
CD30 expression has been investigated far less in solid tumors than in hematologic malignancies, with the exception of testicular embryonal carcinoma (EC).1,2,3 Testicular embryonal carcinoma is at present the one solid tumor in which CD30 is an accepted marker of the disease and is used as part of the standard diagnostic panel. There have been occasional reports of CD30 expression in various tumors of mesenchymal origin,4,5 cutaneous angiosarcoma,6,7 nasopharyngeal non-keratinizing carcinoma8 and other solid tumors,9 though the data are inconsistent and often not reproducible. In both solid tumors and hematologic malignancies, problems assessing CD30 expression include the evolution of diagnostic criteria over the years, use of different antibodies (eg, Ki-1 vs Ber-H2), use of frozen samples vs paraffin blocks, possible differences in the percentage of cells used to indicate positivity and incomplete data reporting. Standardization of protocols and reporting practices would substantially increase understanding of the expression and possible role of CD30 in these malignancies.
Various levels of CD30 expression have been reported in many tumor types. However, with the exceptions of HL, ALCL and testicular embryonal carcinoma, CD30 expression is generally supported by only a few studies with small numbers of patients. Additional studies are needed to determine whether this activation marker is instrumental in the malignant process or just a bystander, and whether CD30 expression affects clinical prognosis. Further characterizing the cell surface expression of CD30 might help identify subtypes or variants with clinical or prognostic significance. Finally, further characterization of CD30 may enable a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cancer, particularly the lymphomas.
CD30 was initially identified on the Reed-Sternberg (R-S) cells characteristic of HL.10 The German Hodgkin Study Group and others have found CD30 in >95% of cases of classical HL.11 In contrast, CD30 is expressed less intensely and in less than 10% of cases of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL), a histologic subtype that represents approximately 5% of all HL.12,13,14 CD30 is also highly expressed in ALCL.15,16 Cutaneous
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- Gopalan A, Dhall D, Olgac S, et al. Testicular mixed germ cell tumors: a morphological and immunohistochemical study using stem cell markers, OCT3/4, SOX2 and GDF3, with emphasis on morphologically difficult-to-classify areas. Mod Pathol. 2009;22(8):1066-1074.
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- Aggerholm-Pedersen N, Bærentzen S, Holmberg Jørgensen JP, Safwat A. A rare case of CD30+, radiation-induced cutaneous angiosarcoma misdiagnosed as T-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(13):e362-e364.
- Weed BR, Folpe AL. Cutaneous CD30-positive epithelioid angiosarcoma following breast-conserving therapy and irradiation: a potential diagnostic pitfall. Am J Dermatopathol. 2008;30(4):370-372.
- Kneile JR, Tan G, Suster S, Wakely PE Jr. Expression of CD30 (Ber-H2) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, undifferentiated type and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma: a comparison study with anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Histopathology. 2006;48(7):855-861.
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- Stein H, Mason DY, Gerdes J, et al. The expression of the Hodgkin's disease associated antigen Ki-1 in reactive and neoplastic lymphoid tissue: evidence that Reed-Sternberg cells and histiocytic malignancies are derived from activated lymphoid cells. Blood. 1985;66(4):848-858.
- Stein H, Foss H-D, Dürkop H, et al. CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a review of its histopathologic, genetic, and clinical features. Blood. 2000;96(12):3681-3695.
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- Willemze R, Jaffe ES, Burg G, et al. WHO-EORTC classification for cutaneous lymphomas. Blood. 2005;105(10):3768-3785.
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- Falini B, Pileri S, Pizzolo G, et al. CD30 (Ki-1) molecule: a new cytokine receptor of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily as a tool for diagnosis and immunotherapy. Blood. 1995;85(1):1-14.
- Savage KJ, Harris NL, Vose JM, et al; International Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Project. ALK- anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is clinically and immunophenotypically different from both ALK+ ALCL and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified: report from the International Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Project. Blood. 2008;111(12):5496-5504.
- Delabie J, Holte H, Vose JM, et al. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma: clinical and histological findings from the International Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Project. Blood. 2011;118(1):148-155.
- Menke DM, Horny H-P, Griesser H, Atkinson EJ, Kaiserling E, Kyle RA. Immunophenotypic and genotypic characterisation of multiple myelomas with adverse prognosis characterised by immunohistological expression of the T cell related antigen CD45RO (UCHL-1). J Clin Pathol. 1998;51(6):432-437.
- Gattei V, Degan M, Gloghini A, et al. CD30 ligand is frequently expressed in human hematopoietic malignancies of myeloid and lymphoid origin. Blood. 1997;89(6):2048-2059.
- Fickers M, Theunissen P. Granulocytic sarcoma with expression of CD30. J Clin Pathol. 1996;49(9):762-763.